China trade restrictions 230Trump isn't the only one who can use bogus security claims in a trade war. The Chinese have now declared TikTok's software essential for protecting national security. All governments lie, I.F. Stone taught my generation.

Every Chinese schoolchild learns about the "unequal treaties" imposed after the Opium Wars, including the American role. They have resolved "Never again." The attempt by the U.S. to hold back the Chinese economy will be resisted as fiercely as the Chinese resisted in Korea.

We will ultimately lose, a good reason to end this as soon as possible.

From in Google translation

According to the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Technology Import and Export", all technologies involved in the transfer of technology abroad, whether through trade, investment or other means, must strictly abide by the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Technology Import and Export". For technology export, you must apply for a technology export license to the provincial commerce department, and only after obtaining approval can you conduct substantive negotiations and sign a technology export contract. The responsible comrades of the Service and Trade Department of the Ministry of Commerce answered reporters' questions on the "Catalogue".

1. What are the background and main considerations for the adjustment of the Catalogue?

According to the Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on the Administration of Technology Import and Export, the Ministry of Commerce, in conjunction with the Ministry of Science and Technology, formulates, adjusts and publishes a catalog of technologies that prohibit or restrict exports. The main purpose is to standardize technology export management, promote technological progress and foreign economic and technological cooperation, and safeguard the national economy. Safety. The last revision of the Catalogue was in 2008, more than 10 years ago. With the rapid development of science and technology and the continuous improvement of my country's scientific and technological strength and industrial competitiveness, it is imperative to adjust the Catalogue in a timely manner in accordance with international practices. This time, the "Catalogue" has removed four technical items that are prohibited from exporting, and adjusted the technical content that restricts exports. The Chinese government has always insisted on opening up to promote development, insisting on open cooperation in innovation capabilities, and committed to creating a good environment for technological innovation and international cooperation, and promoting the free flow of technological innovation elements. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country's technology trade has developed steadily and rapidly. According to statistics from the Ministry of Commerce, in 2013, China's technology export contract value was 20 billion US dollars, less than half of the import contract value; in 2019, the technology export contract value was 32.1 billion US dollars, which is basically close to the import contract value. Technology export not only optimizes my country's export structure, but also promotes the industrial upgrading and economic development of related trading partners. In the future, we will further strengthen technology trade cooperation with countries around the world, continuously optimize the technology trade business environment, and promote the healthy, orderly and sustainable development of my country's technology trade.

2. What are the main contents of this "Catalogue" adjustment?

The adjustment of the "Catalogue" has successively solicited opinions from relevant departments, industry associations, industry academic circles and the public, involving a total of 53 technical items: First, delete microbial fertilizer technology, caffeine production technology, riboflavin production technology, and vitamin fermentation technology 4 items of technology prohibited from export. The second is to delete 5 technical items that restrict exports, including Newcastle disease vaccine technology, natural medicine production technology, functional polymer material preparation and processing technology, chemical synthesis and semi-synthetic medicine production technology, and information security firewall software technology. The third is to add 23 new export-restricted technical items including artificial breeding technology of agricultural wild plants, cashmere goat breeding and breed breeding technology, space material production technology, large-scale high-speed wind tunnel design and construction technology, aerospace bearing technology, and laser technology. Fourth, the control points and technical parameters of 21 technical items have been modified, involving crop breeding technology, aquatic germplasm breeding technology, chemical raw material production technology, biological pesticide production technology, spacecraft measurement and control technology, space data transmission technology, and map mapping. Technology, information processing technology, vacuum technology and other fields.

3. This time the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Science and Technology have only released the adjusted content of the "Catalogue of Technologies Prohibited and Restricted from Exporting China". What are your considerations for the "Catalogue of Technologies Prohibited and Restricted from Importing China"? What are the future work plans?

At present, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Science and Technology are still proceeding with the revision of the catalog in an orderly manner. In the next step, the "China Catalog of Technologies Prohibited and Restricted on Exports" will be further deleted and adjusted; at the same time, in accordance with the "Administrative Measures on the Prohibition of Imports and Restricted Technologies" issued at the end of 2019, the "Catalogue of Technologies on Prohibited and Restricted Imports of China" will be greatly streamlined to further highlight The role of market regulation. The Chinese government attaches great importance to optimizing the business environment for technology trade and actively promotes the facilitation of technology trade. Since the beginning of this year, the Ministry of Commerce has issued the "Notice on Further Facilitating Technology Import and Export During the Period of Epidemic Prevention and Control", actively promote the paperless registration of technology import and export contracts, and study measures to relax restrictions on technology import and export business entities. In the next step, the Ministry of Commerce will continue to introduce more technology trade facilitation measures, continuously improve the technology trade promotion platform, and strengthen technology trade exchanges and cooperation with countries around the world.

4. How to define technology export and what are the specific forms? How do companies need to apply if they export restricted technologies?

According to the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Technology Import and Export", technology export refers to the transfer of technology from within my country to abroad through trade, investment or economic and technological cooperation, including the transfer of patent rights, the transfer of patent application rights, and patent implementation licenses. , Technology secret transfer, technology service and other methods of technology transfer. In other words, all the transfer of technology abroad, whether it is through trade or investment, etc., must comply with the "Regulations on the Administration of Technology Import and Export of the People's Republic of China." Technology export is divided into three categories: freedom, restriction and prohibition. Free technology is subject to post-contract registration and filing, and the import and export of restricted technology requires a license. Since 2007, the Ministry of Commerce has delegated the import and export licensing authority of restricted technologies to the competent commercial departments of all provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government. After receiving the technology export application, the competent commerce department will review it in conjunction with the competent science and technology department, and make a decision on approval or disapproval within 30 working days from the date of receipt of the application, and issue a "Letter of Intent for Technology Export License" to those approved. Only after the applicant obtains the letter of intent, can it conduct substantive negotiations and sign a technology export contract. After signing the technology export contract, the applicant must apply for a "technology export license". The competent commerce department shall review the authenticity of the technology export contract, and within 15 working days from the date of receipt of the relevant documents, make a decision on whether to permit or disapprove the technology export, and if the permit is granted, a "technology export license" will be issued. The technology export contract shall take effect on the date of the issuance of the technology export license..

The world needs a good news source on Internet and telecom policy. I hope to create one. Catch a mistake? Email me please.  Dave Burstein


Professor Noam's "Many Internets"

Until about 2010, everyone agreed the Net was a "network of networks," not a monolithic entity. There was a central authority, ICANN, keeping track of domain names, but that was a minor administrative function.
Columbia Professor Noam suggests we might be better off accepting that some nations or groups might want to organize their networks differently. It's easy to see demand for an Internet with much more effective filters against material some think harmful to children. (Any 10 year old can easily find porn today. Many do.)
Internet translation is getting better very quickly. You might want an "Internet" that translates everything into your language. Google Chrome translation isn't perfect but I was able to research most of this story on Russian language sites. With a few more years progress, I might welcome an alternate that brings me everything in English, including caching for better performance.
De facto, Internet news is already split, as hundreds of millions only get their news from Facebook. Google AMP pages, including for news, also favor selected parts of the net
Centralizing the DNS doesn't prevent censorship, as the Chinese have demonstrated. There are many Jewish and Muslim fundamentalists who want to block what they consider blasphemy and limit free speech. See . More from Noam

Russia Orders Alternate Root Internet System
It's actually practical and not necessarily a problem.The Security Council of the Russian Federation, headed by Vladimir Putin, has ordered the "government to develop an independent internet infrastructure for BRICS nations, which would continue to work in the event of global internet malfunctions ... This system would be used by countries of the BRICS bloc – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa." RT
Columbia University Professor Eli Noam and then ICANN CEO Fadi Chehadé have both said such a system is perfectly practical as long as there is robust interconnection.
Actually, the battle over ICANN and domain names is essentially symbolic. Managing the DNS is a relatively insignificant task, more clerical than governing. ICANN Chair Steve Crocker pointed out they had very little to do with policy.
Some will claim this is about blocking free speech but that's rhetoric. Russia doesn't need to fiddle with the DNS for censorship, as the Chinese have demonstrated. The wonders of the Internet will continue so long as the resulting nets" are robustly connected. The ICANN and U.S. policy goal should be to help create that system for interconnection.
I expect contentions that “The Russians are taking over our Internet” and “They are splitting the Internet.” The Internet is a “Network of Networks.” It is not a monolith so what would “splitting” it mean or do?
After the WCIT, China realized that ICANN and the DNS are side issues not worth bothering about. They have been building alternate institutions including the World Internet Summit in Wuzhan and the BRICs conferences.  The Chinese have put their main work where decisions that matter are made. Wireless standards are set by 3GPP, where nothing can be approved without China's consent.
The American battle at ITU is proving to be a historic mistake.
Why does Russia want an independent Internet?
They fear that Western sanctions on Russia could cripple the Russian Net. Communications minister, Nikolay Nikiforov, worries about, "a scenario where our esteemed partners would suddenly decide to disconnect us from the internet." I think that's highly unlikely but Nikiforov points out, “Recently, Russia is being addressed in a language of unilateral sanctions: first, our credit cards are being cut off; then the European Parliament says that they’ll disconnect us from SWIFT."
It makes sense for the Russians to be prepared for such a contingency as the Cold War has been warming up on both sides. "Britain's top military chief Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach just made headlines warning Russian subs "could CRIPPLE Britain by cutting undefended undersea internet cables." Much more

ICANN Continues Excluding Russia & China From the Board
No wonder Russia wants an alternate root. Three years ago, ICANN CEO Fadi Chehadé promised "a seat at the table" to Chinese Premier Li. ICANN welched and this year added two more Americans.
Almost all the ICANN board is from the U.S. and close allies; only about 4 of the 18 board members are from countries on the other side of the North/South divide in Internet policy.  Claiming ICANN represents the Global Internet is inappropriate. China is 1/3rd of the Internet but has no representation on the board.
I know many of the board members. They are all basically honorable but generally share a strong opinion on North-South issues.
Larry Strickling of the U.S. government knew just what he was doing with the IANA transition. He handed over to a board with similar positions as the U.S. government.
"The system is unsustainable while it excludes half the world," I have been saying since 2012. More, including the transcript of Fadi's statements,

Sorry, Ajit Pai: Smaller Telcos Did Not Reduce Investment After NN Ruling
Pai justifies his NN choice with the claim, "The impact has been particularly serious for smaller Internet service providers." #wrong (Actually, NN has minimal effects on investment, up or down, I’m convinced. Competition, new technology, customer demand and similar are far more important.)
The two largest suppliers to “smaller ISPs” saw sales go up. Adtran's sales the most recent nine months were $540M, up from $473M the year before. 2016 was $636M, 2015 $600M. Calix the last nine months sold $372M, up from $327M. The full year 2016 was $459M, up from $407M in 2015. Clearfield, a supplier of fiber optic gear, was up 8% in sales in the smaller ISPs.
There is nothing in the data from others that suggests an alternate trend. Anyone could have found this data in a few minutes from the company quarterly reports.
The results in larger companies are ambiguous. I can "prove" capex went up or went down by selecting the right data. The four largest companies' capex - two/thirds of the total - went up from $52.7B in 2015 to $55.7B in 2016. The result remains positive after making sensible adjustments for mergers and acquisitions. That's as close to "proving" that NN led to increased spending as the facts chosen to prove the opposite.
Actually, whether capex went up or down in 2016 tells us almost nothing about the choice on neutrality. Everyone knows a single datapoint could be random or due to other causes. Much more, including the source of the errors

Elders Bearing Witness: Vint, Timbl, & Many More
Vint Cerf, Tim Berners-Lee, Steve Wozniak and more than a dozen true Internet pioneers wrote Congress to protect Neutrality. The best Congress money can buy didn't listen but I wanted to reproduce their letter.
I hope they are wrong believing "is an imminent threat to the Internet we worked so hard to create." My take is the impact will be moderate in the short run.
From the letter:
We are the pioneers and technologists who created and now operate the Internet, and some of the innovators and business people who, like many others, depend on it for our livelihood. ... The FCC’s proposed Order is based on a flawed and factually inaccurate understanding of Internet technology. These flaws and inaccuracies were documented in detail in a 43-page-long joint comment signed by over 200 of the most prominent Internet pioneers and engineers and submitted to the FCC on July 17, 2017.
Despite this comment, the FCC did not correct its misunderstandings, but instead premised the proposed Order on the very technical flaws the comment explained. The technically-incorrect proposed Order ... More, including the full list,